Glebe Fire Brigade

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Glebe Fire Brigade

The first 'fire brigades' in New South Wales date from the mid-nineteenth century. They were modelled on those of the United Kingdom, where people paid insurance companies to provide fire fighters. These insurance company brigades would only attend fires at buildings that had their company's badge affixed to the premises. [1] The NSW Parliament identified this as a problem as early as 1854, after the Tooth and Co Brewery on Broadway burned for five days, but fire-fighting was not regulated or overseen by the New South Wales Government until 1884, by which time Glebe Fire Brigade was nearly a decade old. It would take another four decades before it became a professional brigade with fully paid firefighters.

The formation of the Glebe Volunteer Fire Company

According to Max Solling, Glebe's councillors were self-made men who fervently supported free enterprise and opposed trade unionism. [2] Self-reliant men like these were well aware of the need to provide protection for property against such 'natural disasters' as fires, and formed the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade in 1875. [3] Its first meeting was held at the council chambers on 25 June 1875. The muster roll comprised 39 members and the first office bearers were superintendent JH Seamer, foreman C Fenton and his assistant J Freeland, secretary E Ramsay Jr and treasurer JG Purvis. [4] The new Glebe Volunteer Fire Company was prepared to work over a wide geographical area – three days after its formation a member extinguished a fire at Botany Road, Waterloo, albeit 'assisted by the neighbours'. [5] By August the Company was advertising that its foreman, Charles Fenton, of 33 Bay Street, Glebe, was taking fire calls. [6]

During 1877 the Company held meetings in Darlington to encourage the residents there to subscribe and help raise funds for a fire engine. [7] The Company was struggling with funding and leading members were criticised for their apathy at meetings but by June 1877 the members had agreed to purchase a fire engine. [8] Unfortunately, it wasn't to be acquired until the following year. In the meantime, the Company had to make do with a hand pump that was purchased from Charles Bown, who happened to be the Superintendent of the Insurance Brigade. [9]

While the Brigade was able to manage small fires, two major fires resulted in a lot of publicity. On September 24, 1877 the Evening News reported:

Yesterday afternoon about one o'clock, Mr Charles Fenton, one of the officers of the Glebe Fire Company, who always keeps a sharp look-out near the office of the brigade, was alarmed by seeing volumes of smoke issuing from the eastern end of the Glebe-road; and on arriving there, accompanied by three of four members, with the hand fire-pump, he discovered the fire to be in the house of Mr Henry Smith, Crown and Anchor Hotel, at the corner of the road next to the Congregational Church. The little band at once commenced operation; the neighbours joining in with a will, under the direction of Mr Fenton, and after two hours hard work they had the satisfaction of quenching the enemy without any very serious consequences having arisen. The hand fire-pump purchased from Mr Charles Bown, worked splendidly, giving every satisfaction; but the energetic Glebe Company are sadly in want of funds to purchase an engine, which we hope their neighbours and their friends will assist them in obtaining. [10]

Then in 1878 there was a major fire at Bay Street:

At about half-past 12 o'clock today a fire broke out in a house No 4, Bay Street, Glebe, occupied by Mr Glisame, bootmaker. The alarm was given at the Glebe Company's station, and Mr Fenton immediately started for the locale of the fire with a hand pump, and with great difficulty got the flames under. Mr Glisame was burned about the arms…in his endeavour to put out the fire. [11]

A new fire engine

In March 1878 the annual meeting of the Glebe Volunteer Fire Company was held in the Glebe Council Chambers with a healthy attendance. The Superintendent reported that ten chimney fires had been effectively extinguished and the company had attended three fires in the vicinity of the Glebe. Importantly, the Company had raised £101/9/6 and paid £50 as a deposit on an engine which was soon to be delivered. [12] A story in the Evening News in May 1878 reveals the engine was in service, though not yet tested:

An alarm of fire was given at the Glebe fire Station yesterday afternoon, about half past 2, to the effect that a house was on fire on Newtown Road. Mr Fenton immediately started with the company's engine, and on arrival found it was a foul chimney that was burning. The fire was extinguished with the aid of a fire pump. As the engine was not required, it was returned to the station. [13]

Company politics

At the annual general meeting of 1879, the leadership of the Company changed and Mr A Newton was elected Superintendent of the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade, inviting 'members to his residence to partake of some refreshments after which they finished a very jovial evening.' [14] It does not seem that Superintendent Fenton left willingly. In June that year the Evening News reported he was lobbying for a Fire Brigade Bill:

…in order to have a practical man to superintend the whole of the brigades – city and suburbs; also to insist that all officers of the brigades shall undergo an examination as to their knowledge of the duties before being appointed. [15]

The Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade made a show of their support for the new superintendent at their next meeting:

…after the business of the meeting terminated, the members took this opportunity of showing their confidence and respect to their Superintendent by presenting him with a valuable work upon Fire Protection, edited by Captain Shaw of the Metropolitan (London) Fire Brigade. The presentation was made by Foreman J Freeland, who, in a neat speech, complimented the Superintendent upon his success with the Brigade. Mr Newton then replied by thanking the members for the present, and hoped he would command the respect of the members of the Brigade. [16]

Despite this internal strife, the Brigade presented a brave face to the public:

The Glebe and Newtown Volunteer Fire Brigade held their annual torchlight procession on Queen's birthnight. The Glebe Company had their engine dressed in its holiday attire. They formed in procession at a quarter to 8, and armed with torches left the station…They met the Newtown Company fully armed with torches and their engine also dressed in holiday attire. The two companies [were] all armed with torches, blue lights, and red fire, headed by the Newtown band…Crowds of people thronged the whole of the line of procession, much pleased to see such a fine orderly lot of men. Several residents of the borough had their places lit up with coloured fire as the procession passed. After the procession the Glebe Company invited their guests (the Newtown Company) to dinner, served in the Council chambers, kindly lent for the occasion. [17]

Insurance brigades versus volunteer brigades

During 1880 the Company moved from their old premises next to the Council Chambers on the south side of Derby Place near Glebe Point Road to a new station in Mitchell Street. [18] The new station was occupied at an annual rent of £52. [19]

At this time, fire brigades began to organise. In 1880 the Insurance Brigade led ten brigades in the formation of the Metropolitan Associated Fire Brigades. With Charles Bown as Superintendent, they held their first annual meeting in the Temperance Hall, Pitt Street, on 10 January 1881.

Glebe was one of seven brigades in the United Volunteer Fire Brigade Association, which sought to counteract the 'insurance-associated' brigades. This association included the volunteers at the city's No 1, No 2 and No 3 stations, as well as Woollahra, Glebe, Hudson's (Redfern) and Mount Lachlan Brigades. Between them they boasted 'one steam engine and eleven manual engines, with all necessary plant'. [20] At the half-yearly meeting of the United Volunteer Fire Brigade Association, held in the Temperance Hall on Thursday night 3 February 1881, the secretary, Mr A Tremain, spoke about his organisation's hopes:

Apart from the antagonistic feeling which has been exhibited by other firemen to the cause we have been so far successful in introducing to the public, we have every prospect before us of proving that the institution now established by the seven brigades, under the designation of the 'United Volunteer Fire Brigades,' will not only meet with the approval of the citizens, but also of the Government of the country. [21]

It took some three years before the government did take action, legislating to form a Metropolitan Fire Brigades Board. [22]

Registration with the Metropolitan Fire Brigade

With the passing of the Fire Brigades Ac t 1884, the Fire Brigades Board was established. Glebe Volunteer Fire Company immediately applied to be registered under the Act. [23] Registration meant that a volunteer company was prepared to place itself under the control of the Superintendent (as well as the rules and regulations) of the new Metropolitan Fire Brigade. In return, the Company would receive an annual subsidy to assist with the costs associated with running a brigade. In 1885 the company received a subsidy of £150. [24]

St Johns Road Fire Station

On 13 May 1904, a site in St Johns Road was resumed for the purpose of constructing a new fire station at a cost of £1400. [25] In September 1905 Superintendent Alfred Webb of the Metropolitan Fire Brigade estimated the plant required for the new station, recommending a steam fire engine, a 45 foot (13.7 metre) fire escape ladder, and three horses be purchased at a cost of £945. [26] He recommended a permanent staff of eight men be installed in the new building. [27]

However, between August 1905 and the end of that year, the Council canvassed the municipality and resolved that the volunteers be allowed to man the new station. The Fire Board assented and the money allotted for a force of permanent men in the Glebe Municipality was spent in Leichhardt. [28]

Sandbrook Bros constructed the new station at a contract price of £2920, working to the design of the Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon. The Chief Secretary, the Honourable James Hogue, MLA, officially opened it on 13 June 1906. [29]

The limitations of voluntarism

The difficulty of running a fire station with volunteers quickly became apparent. At the January 1907 meeting of the Glebe Ratepayers and Property Owners' Association, a letter from three former Glebe firemen – Thomas Ward, George Brown and Joseph Conlon – was tabled and forwarded to the Mayor. The letter stated:

We have come to the conclusion that we could not run the new station as it should be, as the only time we could get anything like a muster of men was in the night time. On one occasion on a Saturday night, we received a call from the Children's Hospital, Glebe Point, but there was only one (1) man to turn out to the fire, which…was only in the chimney. This gentlemen, is only one instance of many…We personally think that a Fire Station like the Glebe is possessed of, should not be neglected the way it has been, but should be manned by a Staff…that…the residents will have every confidence in…as regards the saving of life and property. [30]

Captain Charlton defended the performance of the brigade since the new station opened in 1906:

We quickly settled down into the new order of things, and thanks to the energy of the members, were soon able to turn out with that promptness which earned the Brigade such a good name in the old station.

We have been rather unfortunate with our men. In the first place, we worked one short for the first six weeks. Another matter for complaint was the distance at which two of the members, G Brown and J Conlon, lived from the station. These men resided in Mitchell Street and Glebe Street respectively, and not being able to hear the alarm, were practically useless…[unless]…they happened to be within the precincts of the station. It will thus be seen that we were practically working two men short most of our time. [31]

Captain Charlton reported that Brown and Conlon had found they could not remedy their living situation, and had since resigned, but over the most recent 22 calls, attendance had averaged five men. Charlton believed this was a 'splendid record, considering the disadvantages we have had to contend with.' [32]

The Ratepayers and Property Owners' Association was unconvinced and wrote to the Secretary of the Fire Brigades Board to request permanent staff be placed at Glebe Fire Station. At their behest, Messrs Brown, Conlon and Ward wrote to the Fire Brigades Board, and then to Glebe Council, pointing out that Glebe Council paid £120/17/6 more than Leichhardt Council to the Fire Brigades Board, yet Leichhardt had a permanent brigade of eight men, a steam fire engine and a set of ladders, whereas Glebe had nine partially paid firemen, a manual engine and a set of ladders.' [33]

The effects of poor staffing

In April 1907 a Forest Lodge resident, Henry Harman, wrote to Superintendent Albert Webb and the Glebe Council to complain about delays in fighting a fire in Lodge Street. Harman said he discovered a fire at 8.25pm and ran to the fire station but, despite calling out and slapping the windowsill, no one appeared. Another resident had attempted to ring the bell but found it inoperative. When firemen did appear, they harnessed a pair of horses to manual fire engine before the driver refused to go on account of having no men. The pair was unharnessed and a third horse was harnessed to the ladders before the call was answered. According to Harman, the delay had been fifteen minutes.

Harman said the fire protection in Glebe was a 'primitive and crude state of affairs' and he was 'voicing the opinion of a large number of ratepayers' that Glebe should have a permanent staff of firemen. [34] In response, the District Officer called for a report which Captain Charlton submitted on engine-keeper Frank Gall, who denied any delay in turning out to the fire: [35]

On receiving the call of fire at 8:50pm, I let the two horses out of their stables for the Manual…the Ladders' horse was let out at the same time. Owing to there not being sufficient men in the station…to turn out with the Manual, I gave the order to return the two horses to their stables – the harness not being dropped on them, and I put the Ladders' horse in and turned out with the Curricle Ladders, knowing that other men were available and would follow on with the Manual…I beg to note that there was not more than one (1) minute delay in the turn out. [36]

Superintendent Webb was unconvinced and agreed the Glebe volunteers had lost their reputation for turning out quickly, despite having more convenient facilities in their new building. [37] Charlton was warned to improve attendance at fires. [38]

Council requests a permanent brigade

Harman was not the only voice of complaint in Glebe. In June 1907 The Sydney Morning Herald reported that the Glebe Council had received a large amount of correspondence questioning the efficiency of the local fire brigade, including 'letters from men who had left the brigade making complaints and…replies from the men in charge of the station.' [39] While the The Sydney Morning Herald said the Fire Brigades Board was yet to reply, the matter had been taken up by the Glebe Ratepayers Association which had written to Glebe Council stating:

In a district of such magnitude and importance as the Glebe, the local fire brigade should be composed entirely of members of the permanent staff of the Metropolitan Brigade. [40]

At a meeting of the Council on 4 June 1907, a motion was carried:

That in view of the enlarged responsibilities devolving upon the Glebe partially-paid fire brigade, and the changed conditions generally, this council is of opinion that the time has arrived when a permanent staff with a steam fire engine should be placed in charge of the Glebe Fire Station, and that the forgoing resolution be conveyed to the Fire Brigades Board. [41]

The Fire Brigades Board replied that the Glebe Volunteer Brigade had been warned to improve their attendance at fires. [42]

Glebe gets a steamer

The Council wasn't alone in seeing the need for a 'steamer' at Glebe. District Officer John Ford told Superintendent Webb in September 1907 that a steam fire engine was needed to protect a number of significant properties in the south of the city and within Glebe that were 'extending in leaps and bounds', including the Alexandria Hospital for Children, Sydney University, the Prince Alfred Hospital, Arnott's Biscuit Factory and Kauri Timber Company. [43] Ford said:

In the event of a large fire in the vicinity of George Street West, Grace Bros block, or the Kauri Timber Coy, the only backing up we get from the Glebe is three (3) men and manual engine…and in taking steamers from such important Municipalities as Newtown, Redfern or Leichhardt, to back up fires at the Glebe, is running too great a risk in leaving these Municipalities uncovered. [44]

Superintendent Webb agreed that, after 15 months' worth of complaints about the fire attendance of the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade, a more powerful pumping plant was entirely necessary. [45]

The need for a permanent staff

The following October, Glebe Alderman Earl reopened the debate about staffing at the fire station, calling for a permanent staff and telling Glebe Council the men were:

efficient enough themselves, but they had other work to do…you could not expect partially-paid men to be always on the spot.' He stated the men were able, but the whole difficulty was that they 'could not be depended upon to be available on a sudden alarm.

He stressed that the progress of the district demanded 'the most complete and up-to-date machinery for coping with fire', and in several recent fire incidents the support of George Street West Brigade was required to extinguish the fires:

There were permanent staffs, with steam fire engines at Newtown, Balmain, Redfern, Alexandria &c, and why shouldn't Glebe have the same? [46]

The motion was defeated after Aldermen Brigg and Cole argued the Fire Brigade Board should 'take the responsibility on their own shoulders…if there was a weak spot in their system, it was their duty to attend to it, and not the Glebe Council'. [47] When Alderman Earl complained to the Secretary of the Fire Board he was reminded that Council had rejected a proposed permanent brigade in 1905 and that the matter had been deferred until the consideration of the Estimates for the forthcoming year. [48]

Newspaper attacks on bungling

On 5 March 1909, the Evening News reported on a disaster at Glebe with the headline 'Glebe Fire Sensation. Fire-Fighting Volunteers. Alleged Bungling. George-Street Brigade. To The Rescue.'

What is described by the onlookers as 'bungling of the worst description,' and worthy only of the reputation of a third-rate Dark town fire brigade, is alleged to have occurred early this morning at a fire in St. John's-road, Glebe. Shortly before 2 o'clock a fire broke out in the asbestos boiler-covering factory of Mr Chas Sprod, situated at the back of No 83 St John's-road. Glebe.

Sprod's uninsured factory, worth £300 to £400, was destroyed and an adjoining phonograph dealership was damaged. The newspaper alleged that the Glebe Fire Station had told the professional firefighters at George Street West (No 2) that the fire was confined to some bushes, but the District Officer at No 2 decided to turn up anyway. The newspaper commented that it was fortunate he did so, as the Glebe Volunteers 'appeared unable to find any water' and onlookers said they were making as much impression on the fire 'as if they were not there at all.' [49]

Glebe's Captain Charlton wrote to the Mayor asking him to initiate an inquiry so the firemen could state their version of events. [50] An inquiry, presided over by Captain Edward Love, was held on 6 April and attended by the Mayor and several aldermen (including Alderman Earl), as well as several volunteer captains. Charlton argued the men had not underestimated the fire, but had insufficient water pressure until they attached a line to a second hydrant, managing to do so before No 2 arrived. [51] Although Alderman Earl disputed this, Captain Love chose to endorse the Glebe firemen.

The mere fact of Captain Charlton and his men continuing in their positions was an ample answer to the newspaper statements. As a member of the [Metropolitan Fire] Board, he was in a position to say if the Board gave the slightest credence to the newspaper reports, the matter would have been promptly inquired into, and the brigade dismissed if the charges were well founded [and] recognised the expedients resorted to by newspapers to work up sensational news. [52]

However, Council's position on staffing of the Glebe Fire Station had shifted completely, in favour of replacing the partially paid firemen with permanent staff. Superintendent Webb commented that

In view of the resolution of the Glebe Council contained in their letter of the 13th December 1905, their letter of the 17th May 1909 shows a great revulsion in feeling and indicates very plainly that dissatisfaction exists among a portion of the Glebe residents with regard to the amount of protection which is afforded by a Volunteer Fire Brigade. [53]

The volunteers at Glebe retained some community support, as 42 members signed a petition to the Mayor and Alderman in June 1909 asking for the retention of the status quo.

We, the undersigned having heard that some persons are agitating to have the Glebe Partially Paid Firemen removed and a Permanent Staff placed in the Glebe Fire Station, we most humbly beseech you Gentlemen, to do your uttermost to retain the men who have done such splendid work in the past, and whose smartness and promptitude in responding to Fire Calls have proved your wisdom in placing the Partially-Paid men in their new Station, and reflects the greatest credit on the Officer of the Brigade. [54]

A Permanent Brigade at last

These debates within the Glebe community were ended by the Fire Brigades Act 1909, which dissolved the Fire Brigades Board. Glebe Fire Brigade came under the control of the newly-formed Board of Fire Commissioners on 1 January 1910. On 31 December 1910 the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade disbanded. It was replaced with a permanently staffed brigade of six members on 1 January 1911.

The President of the Fire Brigades Board wrote to Captain Charlton and the members of the brigade, thanking them for their loyal service:

By direction of the Board of Fire Commissioners of New South Wales I have the honour to convey to you an expression of the Board's recognition of the loyal service rendered by the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade during a period of nearly thirty-four years.

The brigade is disbanding today, consequent upon the voluntary retirement of a number of its members, but its name and reputation will long be remembered.

Thanking the Brigade, upon behalf of the Board, for its services. [55]

The new Board of Fire Commissioners By-Laws, gazetted in 1912, stated that 'Every member shall devote the whole of his time to the service'. As a result, every aspect of the fireman's life, as well as that of his family, was dictated by the hours he worked. As one wag noted in 1914, firemen were on duty:

24 hours per day

Seven consecutive days

On the eighth day…they rested.

Firemen had to either live at the station or near it. It was left to the judgement of the officer in charge as to whether the fireman's home was close enough for him to run to the station and catch the engine when the bells rang! The fireman had to take a pledge that he would not take any other type of work. As a result, the areas surrounding fire stations became communities of firemen and their families.

Shift work begins

In March 1928, a new 'two-platoon' roster was introduced. This was a major breakthrough in working conditions as it gave the fireman a newfound freedom. He could now live away from the fire station with his parents or wife, or board with a private family. The downside was that travelling to get to work brought with it the need to pay fares!

The new roster coincided with the most famous fire to occur in Glebe – the George Hudson Timber Yard fire of 1928. The timber yard was located in Bridge Road and the fire required the attendance of over 100 firemen from nine brigades. Twelve motorised pumpers, the 'Big Ben' steamer and two fire-floats all combined to pour thousands of litres of water into the 50-foot (15 metre) high timber stacks which were extensively damaged by the fire. The losses of the log mill, the saw doctor's shop and the 'ready-made houses' mill amounted to approximately £60,000. [56]

The Women's Fire Auxiliary

The last burst of voluntarism at the Glebe Fire Station was the formation of the Woman's Fire Auxiliary on 21 April 1941 as part of women's contribution to the war effort. The first members were 35-40 year old women who were recruited from the WANS (Women's Australian National Service) and put through an eight week course in air raid procedures, dealing with incendiary bombs, fires in the home, rescue work, first aid, operating chemical extinguishers, operating fire alarms, station procedures, and watch-room duties. After passing an examination, they were attached to the station in their locality. [57] Members of the Women's Fire Auxiliary were supplied with a uniform consisting of a tunic, skirt, hat, gloves, stockings shoes, shirt, tie, lapel badge, Duperite helmet, overalls and two shoulder badges. The age restriction was later relaxed and membership was opened to the public.

Fire Brigade records show that eight WFA servicewomen were attached to the Glebe Fire Station. While Katherine Parr Smith, a managing secretary, came from Bronte, clothing machine mechanic and cutters' assistant, Moira Carney, and parachute examiner, Mona Mary Parr, came from Forest Lodge, while machinist Joyce Nellie Robinson was from Glebe. Other members included Dorothy Barrett, Edith Barrett, E Dickson and V Phillips. [58] The unit was disbanded at the end of World War II.

In 2015 the St Johns Road Fire Station is part of the professional New South Wales Fire Brigade and still serves its community.

References

This article has been adapted from Garry Boyce. Glebe Fire Brigade: A Brief History of the Early Days, 18752006. Penrith: NSW Fire Brigades (Museum of Fire), 2006.

 

Notes

[1] State Records New South Wales, Archives in Brief 113 – Firefighters, https://www.records.nsw.gov.au/state-archives/guides-and-finding-aids/archives-in-brief/archives-in-brief-113, viewed 25 February 2015

[2] Max Solling, 'Glebe', Dictionary of Sydney, http://dictionaryofsydney.org/entry/glebe, viewed 25 February 2015

[3] Colin Adrian, 'Fighting Fire: A Century of Service', Sydney: George Allen and Unwin, 1984: 19

[4] The Sydney Morning Herald, 25 June 1875

[5] Evening News, 28 June 1875

[6] Evening News, 21 August 1875

[7] The Sydney Morning Herald, 1 June 1877

[8] The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 June 1877

[9] Garry Boyce, Glebe Fire Brigade: A Brief History of the Early Days, 1875–2006 (Penrith: NSW Fire Brigades and Museum of Fire, 2006): 16; Charles Bown also owned a business which manufactured fire engines.

[10] Evening News, 24 September 1877

[11] Evening News, 27 February 1878

[12] The Sydney Morning Herald, 7 March 1878

[13] Evening News, 11 May 1878

[14] Evening News, 20 March 1879

[15] Evening News, 5 June 1879

[16] The Courier, 11 July 1879

[17] The Echo, 27 May 1879

[18] Sands Directories, 1879–1880

[19] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Station & Land Register, Book 4:14

[20] The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 February 1881

[21] The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 February 1881

[22] 'History of City of Sydney Fire Station', Fire and Rescue NSW, http://www.fire.nsw.gov.au/page.php?id=177, viewed 25 February 2015

[23] Metropolitan Fire Brigades, Annual Report, 1884

[24] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Fire Brigades Board Certificate of Registration, No 24

[25] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter from the Secretary to Messrs Hughesdon & Davis, 3 January1962

[26] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Submission from Superintendent Webb to Secretary of the Board, 13 September 1905

[27] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Secretary of the Board, from Supt Webb, 4 June 1909

[28] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Secretary of the Board, from Supt Webb, 4 June 1909; Letter to the Board, from the Town Clerk, 13 September 1905

[29] Metropolitan Fire Brigade, Annual Report, 1905, 3; Metropolitan Fire Brigade, Annual Report, 1906: 4; New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, New South Wales Fire Brigades s170 Register; Board Minutes, 14 June 1906: 301

[30] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Glebe Ratepayers & Property Owners' Association, 21 January1907

[31] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Mayor from Capt Charlton, 4 February 1907

[32] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Mayor from Capt Charlton, 4 February 1907

[33] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Glebe Council from Messrs Brown, Conlon & Ward, 30 March 1907; New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Fire Brigades Board, from the Ratepayers & Property Owners Assoc, 13 March 1907

[34] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to Supt Webb from George Harman, 4 April 1907

[35] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Memorandum from Capt Charlton to Supt Webb, 2 April 1907

[36] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Report from Fireman Gall, 2 April 1907

[37] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Report from Supt Webb to the Secretary of the Board, 2 April 1907

[38] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to Capt Charlton from Supt Webb, 24 April 1907

[39] The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 1907

[40] The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 1907

[41] The Sydney Morning Herald, 6 June 1907

[42] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter from the Secretary of the Board to the Council Clerk, 11 June 1907

[43] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Report to Supt Webb from District Officer Ford, 9 September 1907

[44] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Report to Supt Webb from District Officer Ford, 9 September 1907

[45] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Secretary of the Board from Supt Webb, 9 September 1907

[46] Australian Star, 9 October 1907

[47] Australian Star, 9 October 1907

[48] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to Alderman Earl from the Secretary of the Board, 14 October

[49] Evening News, 5 March 1909, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article113343281, viewed 25 February 2014

[50] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter from Capt Charlton to the Mayor, 5 April 1909

[51] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Minutes of the enquiry held at Glebe Fire Station on 6th April 1909, 5 May 1909

[52] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Minutes of the enquiry held at Glebe Fire Station on 6th April 1909, 5 May 1909

[53] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter from Supt Webb to the Secretary of the Board, 4 June 1909

[54] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Petition to Glebe Council re the retention of the partially-paid Fire Brigade, June 1909

[55] New South Wales Fire Brigades Historical Archive, Letter to the Glebe Volunteer Fire Brigade from the President of the Board, 31 December 1910

[56] The Sydney Morning Herald, 9 March 1928, http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16447914, viewed 25 February 2015

[57] Garry Boyce, Glebe Fire Brigade: A Brief History of the Early Days, 1875-2006 (Penrith: NSW Fire Brigades and Museum of Fire, 2006): 16

[58] Garry Boyce, Glebe Fire Brigade: A Brief History of the Early Days, 1875-2006 (Penrith: NSW Fire Brigades and Museum of Fire, 2006): 16

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