South-western residential suburb which lies on the Nepean River. It was semi-rural until the 1950s and 1960s, when the growth of coal mining contributed to local population growth and demand for residential land releases.

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Traditional country of the Dharawal people, Elderslie developed from land grants given to settlers from 1812. By the 1840s a small village was planned, but was overtaken by the development of Camden across the river. Vineyards, orchards, and market gardens flourished through the nineteenth century. Growth in mining and Sydney's spread have led to more residential development in Elderslie since the 1970s.